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python select方法 python爬虫之BeautifulSoup 使用select方法详解

古怪的一阵风   2021-03-28 我要评论
想了解python爬虫之BeautifulSoup 使用select方法详解的相关内容吗,古怪的一阵风在本文为您仔细讲解python select方法的相关知识和一些Code实例,欢迎阅读和指正,我们先划重点:python,select方法,python,BeautifulSoup,select,下面大家一起来学习吧。

本文介绍了python爬虫之BeautifulSoup 使用select方法详解 ,分享给大家。具体如下:

<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""

我们在写 CSS 时,标签名不加任何修饰,类名前加点,id名前加 #,在这里我们也可以利用类似的方法来筛选元素,用到的方法是 soup.select(),返回类型是 list

(1)通过标签名查找

print soup.select('title') 
#[<title>The Dormouse's story</title>]
 
print soup.select('a')
#[<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>, <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2">Lacie</a>, <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3">Tillie</a>]
 
print soup.select('b')
#[<b>The Dormouse's story</b>]

(2)通过类名查找

print soup.select('.sister')
#[<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>, <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2">Lacie</a>, <a class="sister" href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3">Tillie</a>]

(3)通过 id 名查找

print soup.select('#link1')
#[<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>]

(4)组合查找

组合查找即和写 class 文件时,标签名与类名、id名进行的组合原理是一样的,例如查找 p 标签中,id 等于 link1的内容,二者需要用空格分开

print soup.select('p #link1')
#[<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>]

直接子标签查找

print soup.select("head > title")
#[<title>The Dormouse's story</title>]

(5)属性查找

查找时还可以加入属性元素,属性需要用中括号括起来,注意属性和标签属于同一节点,所以中间不能加空格,否则会无法匹配到。

print soup.select("head > title")
#[<title>The Dormouse's story</title>]
 
print soup.select('a[href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" ]')
#[<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>]

同样,属性仍然可以与上述查找方式组合,不在同一节点的空格隔开,同一节点的不加空格

print soup.select('p a[href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" ]')
#[<a class="sister" href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>]

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